Resources for Science & Planning for Adaptation

Featured Peer Reviewed Publications


General adaptation knowledge and tools

The Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (CAKE) is a clearinghouse for a wide variety of information about climate adaptation.

Through its Conservation Gateway portal, The Nature Conservancy provides datasets, analyses, and spatial mapping for the resilience of terrestrial landscapes in the Northeast and Southeast United States, as well as other important science and information on climate change and resilience: eportsdata/terrestrial/resilience/Pages/default.aspx

The Adaptation Workbook from the U.S. Forest Service’s Northern Institute for Applied Climate Science offers an easy to use, interactive and self-­‐guided tool that creates a custom adaptation plan for forest management and conservation:

The U.S. National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States.

Databasin houses numerous databases related to climate change vulnerability and impact assessment, and adaptation.

AdaptWest is a spatial database and synthesis of methods for conservation planning aimed at enhancing resilience and adaptation potential of natural systems under climate change, for Western North America.

The Yale Mapping Framework offers a menu of approaches appropriate for ecological assessments that support conservation planning in a changing climate. It provides guidance on appropriate strategies for climate-­‐smart ecological assessments and the tools to implement them.


JOINT MITIGation and adaptation resources

Climate Policy Info Hub: Scientific Knowledge for Decision-makers:

An Interview with Scientist Bruno Locatelli on Improving the Design of Climate Change Projects:

Klein, R.J.T., S. Huq, F. Denton, T.E. Downing, R.G. Richels, J.B. Robinson, F.L. Toth (2007). Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 745–777.

Kongsager, R. (2018). Linking Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation: A Review with Evidence from the Land-Use Sectors. Land, 7(4), 158.

Kongsager, R., Locatelli, B., & Chazarin, F. (2016). Addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation together: A global assessment of agriculture and forestry projects. Environmental management, 57(2), 271-282.

Locatelli, B., Evans, V., Wardell, A., Andrade, A., & Vignola, R. (2011). Forests and climate change in Latin America: linking adaptation and mitigation. Forests , 2 (1), 431-450.

Locatelli, B., Fedele, G., Fayolle, V., & Baglee, A. (2016). Synergies between adaptation and mitigation in climate change finance. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management , 8 (1), 112-128.

Mason, N. W., Ausseil, A. G. E., Dymond, J. R., Overton, J. M., Price, R., & Carswell, F. E. (2012). Will use of non-biodiversity objectives to select areas for ecological restoration always compromise biodiversity gains?. Biological Conservation , 155 , 157-168.

Nordic Council of Ministers. (2017). Mitigation and Adaptation Synergies in the NDCs. Nordic Council of Ministers, Denmark. Available at:

Swart, R. O. B., & Raes, F. (2007). Making integration of adaptation and mitigation work: mainstreaming into sustainable development policies?. Climate policy, 7(4), 288-303.


Selected literature

Anderson, L., P. Glick, S. Heyck-­‐Williams, and J. Murphy. (2016) Changing Tides: How Sea-­‐Level Rise Harms Wildlife and Recreation Economies Along the U.S. Eastern Seaboard. National Wildlife Federation.

Anderson, M.G., M. Clark, and A. Olivero Sheldon. (2012). Resilient Sites for Terrestrial Conservation in the Northeast and Mid-­‐Atlantic Region. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Conservation Science. 168 pp.

Anderson, M.G., A. Barnett, M. Clark, C. Ferree, A. Olivero Sheldon, and J. Prince. (2014). Resilient Sites for Terrestrial Conservation in the Southeast Region. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Conservation Science. 127 pp.

Anderson, M. G., & Ferree, C. E. (2010). Conserving the Stage: Climate Change and the Geophysical Underpinnings of Species Diversity. PLoS ONE, 5 (7), e11554.

Beier, P., & Brost, B. (2010). Use of Land Facets to Plan for Climate Change: Conserving the Arenas, Not the Actors. Conservation Biology, 24 (3), 701–710.

Butt, N., H.P. Possingham, C. De Los Rios, R. Maggini, R.A. Fuller, S.L., Maxwell, J.E.M. Watson. (2016). Challenges in assessing the vulnerability of species to climate change to inform conservation actions. Biological Conservation, 199: p. 10­‐15.

Cross, M.S., et al., (2013). Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change. Conservation Biology, 27(1): p. 4­‐13.

Girvetz, E.H., et al., (2009). Applied Climate-­‐Change Analysis: The Climate Wizard Tool. PLoS ONE, 4(12): p. e8320.

Hansen, L.J. & Hoffman, J.R. (2011). Climate Savvy: Adapting conservation and resource management to a changing world. Island Press. 245 pp

Heller, N., & Zavaleta, E. (2009). Biodiversity Management in the face of climate change: A review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation, (142), p. 14-‐32.

Melillo, Jerry M., Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and Gary W. Yohe, Eds. (2014). Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 841 pp. doi:10.7930/J0Z31WJ2.

Lawler, J. J. (2009). Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning. Journal of the New York Academy of Sciences, (1162), p. 79‐98.

Pacifici, M., Visconti, P., Butchart, S. H., Watson, J. E., Cassola, F. M., & Rondinini, C. (2017). Species/'traits influenced their response to recent climate change. Nature Climate Change.

Peterson, D.L., et al. (2011). Responding to climate change in national forests: A guidebook for developing adaptation options. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-­‐GTR-­‐855. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 109 p.

Poiani, K., et al. (2011). Redesigning biodiversity conservation projects for climate change: examples from the field. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20 (1), p. 185­‐201.

Rowland, E.R., Cross, M.S., Hartmann, H. (2014). Considering Multiple Futures: Scenario Planning To Address Uncertainty in Natural Resource Conservation. Washington, DC: US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Segan, D.B., D.G. Hole, C.I. Donatti, C. Zganjar, S. Martin, S.H.M. Butchart, J.E.M. Watson. (2016). Considering the impact of climate change on human communities significantly alters the outcome of species and site-­‐based vulnerability assessments. Diversity and Distributions, 20 (9), p. 1101-‐1111.

Small‐Lorenz, S.I., B.A. Stein, K. Schrass, D.N. Holstein, and A.V.Mehta. (2016). Natural Defenses in Action: Harnessing Nature to Protect Our Communities. National Wildlife Federation.

Stein, B. A., et al., editors (2014). Climate­‐Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C.

Swanston, C, & Janowiak, M, eds. (2012). Forest adaptation resources: Climate change tools and approaches for land managers. Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-­‐87. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 121 p.

We began to really think about climate-related efforts around 2008, recognizing that this was a conservation issue of the utmost concern and we needed to do more than consider it, we needed to be doing targeted work to specifically address it.
— Austin Kane, Former Science and Policy Manager, National Wildlife Federation